Froome finished fifth, 47 seconds back, but with the same time as title rival Esteban Chaves and six seconds ahead of 2010 Vuelta victor Vincenzo Nibali, who now trails the Team Sky rider by one minute and one second ahead of Monday's final rest day.
The Astana climber's escape ripped apart the Froome team and forced the drop of Spanish cycling hero Alberto Contador, who couldn't keep up with the persecution. Lopez finished the stage in three hours, 34 minutes and 51 seconds, overtaking Briton Adam Yates on the final climb to reach the 2,510-metre summit of Alto Hoya de la Mora first for his second win of the race.
"We chose to ride with Contador when he made a great attack, and I thought I had good legs and it all went off well", Lopez said.
Now second in the mountains classification behind the Italian Davide Villella, Majka entering the last week with ambition.
Tour de France champion Chris Froome maintained his lead after coming across seconds later with his other title rivals.
Stage 14, which finished in the Sierra de La Pandera, included 1,830m of incline while yesterday promised to be even more punishing with 2,510m up in the Sierra Nevada mountain range in Granada. "But we made a decision to go for it", Trentin told reporters after edging out 14 other riders in the uphill sprint finish to cross the line first in Tomares.
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But when it came to matching the Aussies with respect to verbal volleys during this Test, Bangladesh were not far behind. David Warner hit 75 not out as Bangladesh's bid for a first ever Test triumph over Australia stalled on Tuesday.
"We've seen everything in this Vuelta: crashes, attacks, I think I can expect everything next week", he added.
"I just have a huge, huge thank you for my teammates". After my first victory I was keeping fresh to try again today.
Russia's Ilnur Zakarin attacked in the final kilometre to take second, 36 seconds back, and also climb ahead of Wilco Kelderman into third overall.
'If anyone had said to me this would be the situation going into the second rest day I would have definitely taken that'.
The 2017 Vuelta de España finishes in Madrid on September 10.